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Literature

Akre, R. D., A. Greene, J. F. MacDonald, P. J. Landolt and H.G. Davis. 1980.

Yellowjackets of American North of Mexico. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 552. Archer, M. E. 1982.

A revision of the subgenus Rugovespula nov. of the genus Vespula (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Kontyu 50:261- 269. Bequaert, J. 1928.

A study of certain types of diplopterous wasps in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Nature History 10: 138- 176. Bequaert, J. 1931.

A tentative synopsis of the hornets and yellow-jackets (Vespinae; Hymenoptera) of America. Entomologica Americana 12: 71- 138. Bland, R. G. and H. E. Jaques. 1978.

How to Know the Insects. Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, Dubuque. Bohart, R. M. and R. C. Bechtel. 1957.

The social wasps of California (Vespinae, Polistinae, Polybiinae). California Insect Survey Bulletin 4:73- 101. Borror, D. J., C. A. Triplehorn and N. F. Johnson. 1989.

An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. Sixth edition. Bradley, J. C. 1922.

The taxonomy of the masarid wasps, including a monograph on the North American species. University of California Publications in Entomology 1: 369- 464. Brothers, D. J. and J. M. Carpenter. 1993.

Phylogeny of Aculeata: Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 2:227- 304. Brothers, D. J. and A. T. Finnamore. 1993.

Superfamily Vespoidea. in Hymenoptera of the World. H. Goulet and J.T. Huber [Eds.] Agriculture Canada. Carpenter, J. M. 1982.

The Phylogenetic relationships and natural classification of the Vespoidea (Hymenoptera). Systematic Entomology 7: 11- 38. Carpenter, J. M. 1987a.

On "Evolutionary genetics of social wasps" and the phylogeny of the Vespinae (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 34: 58- 64. Carpenter, J. M. 1987b.

Phylogenetic relationships and classification of the Vespinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).Systematic Entomology 12: 413- 431. Carpenter, J. M. 1992.

Distances, assumptions and social wasps. Cladistics 8: 155- 160. Ebeling, W. 1975. Urban Entomology. University of California division of agricultural sciences. Greene, A. 1979.

Behavioral characters as indicators of yellowjacket phylogeny (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 72: 614- 619. Greene, A. and D. M. Caron. 1980. 

The common names of social wasps. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 26: 126- 130. Goulet, H. and J. T. Huber. 1993.

Hymenoptera of the World: an Identification Guide to Families. Agriculture Canada. Research Branch. MacDonald, J. F. and R. D. Akre. 1984.

Range extension and emergence of subterranean nesting by the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica, in North America (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Entomological News 95:5- 8. MacDonald, J. F. and M. A. Deyrup. 1989.

The social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) of Indiana. The Great Lakes Entomologist 22:155- 175. MacDonald J. F. and Matthews, R. W. 1975.

Vespula squamosa: a yellow jacket wasp evolving toward parasitism. Science 190:1003- 1004. MacDonald J. F. and Matthews, R. W. 1984.

Nesting biology of the southern yellowjacket, Vespula squamosa (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): social parasitism and independent founding. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57: 134- 151. Matsuura, M. and Yamane, Sk. 1984.

Comparative Ethology of the Vespinae Wasps. Hokkaido University, Sapporo. Miller, C. D. F. 1961.

Taxonomy and distribution of neartic Vespula. The Canadian Entomologist 93:5- 52. Quicke, D. L. J. 1993.

Principles and Techniques of Contemporary Taxonomy. Blackie Academic and Professional, London. Richards, O. W. 1962.

A Revisional Study of the Masarid Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). British Museum (Natural History), London. Schmitz, J. and R. F. A. Moritz. 1990.

Mitochondrial DNA variation in social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Experientia 46: 1068- 1072. Spradbery, J. P. 1973.

The Wasps. University of Washington Press, Seattle. Varvio-Aho, S. L., P. Pamilo and A. Pekkarinen. 1984. Evolutionary genetics of social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Vesupla). Insectes Sociaux 31: 375- 386. Wilson, E. O. 1971.

The Insect Societies. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Spradbery, J.P. 1973. Wasps: an account of the biology and natural history of solitary and social wasps. London, Sidgwick & Jackson. 408p.

Thomas, C.R. 1960. The European Wasp (Vespsula germanica Fab.) in New Zealand. DSIR Information Series No. 27. 74pp.


Videos

Bandits of the Beech Forest.

An award wining documentary made by Wild South. A plague of wasps in the beech forests of New Zealand is joining other immigrant killers, threatening to sweep the country with a wave of extinction which could put an end to native birds like the kaka.

Available from Wild South, PO Box 474 Dunedin, New Zealand.


Scientific Papers in New Zealand

Barlow, N. D., Beggs, J. R.,. Moller, H.. 1998: Spread of the wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum vesparum following its release in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 22(2):205-208.

Barlow, N. D., Moller, H., Beggs, J. R. 1996: A model for the effect of Sphecophaga vesparum vesparum as a biological control agent of the common wasp in New Zealand. Journal of applied ecology 33: 31-34.

Barr, K., Moller, H., Christmas, E., Lyver, P., Beggs, J. 1996: Impacts of introduced common wasps (Vespula vulgaris) on experimentally placed mealworms in a New Zealand beech forest. Oecologia 105: 266-270.

Beggs, J. R. 1991: Altitudinal variation in abundance of common wasps (Vespula vulgaris). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 155-158.

Beggs, J. R., Alspach, P. A., Moller, H., Toft, R. J., Tilley, J. A. V. 1992: Impacts of the parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum on colonies of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris). Proceedings 41st Annual Conference Entomological Society of New Zealand .

Beggs, J. R., Harris, R. J., Read, P. E. C. 1996: Invasion success of the wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum vesparum (Curtis) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 23: 1- 9.

Beggs, J. R., Moller, H. 1991: New Zealand wasp research - uncoordinated goals or still stuck in the descriptive bottleneck? New Zealand journal of zoology 18: 230-231.

Beggs, J. R., Rees, J. S. 1999: Restructuring of Lepidoptera communities by introduced Vespula wasps in a New Zealand beech forest. Oecologia 119: 565-571.

Beggs, J. R., Toft, R. J., Malham, J. P., Rees, J. S., Tilley, J. A. V., Moller, H., Alspach, P. 1998: The difficulty of reducing introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris) populations for conservation gains. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 22: 55-63.

Beggs, J. R., Wilson, P. R. 1991: The kaka, Nestor meridionalis, a New Zealand parrot endangered by introduced wasps and mammals. Biological Conservation 56: 23-38.

Beggs, J.R. 1999: Bandits of the beech forest. New Zealand science teacher 91: 33-36.

Beggs, J.R. 1999: Comparison of the quality of red and silver beech (Nothofagus) seeds in Nelson Lakes National Park, New Zealand. New Zealand journal of Botany 37: 495-501.

Beggs, J.R. In Press: Impact and control of introduced Vespula wasps in New Zealand. Proceedings of the 4th International Hymenoptera Conference. CSIRO.

Beggs, J.R. In Press: The ecological consequences of social wasps (Vespula spp.) invading an ecosystem that has an abundant carbohydrate resource. Biological conservation.

Berry, J. A., Harris, R. J., Read, P. E. C., Donovan, B. J. 1997: Morphological and colour differences between subspecies of Sphecophaga vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae). New Zealand journal of zoology 24: 35-46.

Clapperton, B. K., Alspach, P. A., Moller, H., Matheson, A. G. 1989: The impact of common and German wasps (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) on the New Zealand beekeeping industry. New Zealand journal of zoology 16: 325-332.

Clapperton, B. K., Dymock, J. J. 1997: Growth and survival of colonies of the Asian paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis (Hymenoptera:Vespidae), in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 24: 9-15.

Clapperton, B. K., Lo, P. L., Moller, H., Sandlant, G. R. 1989: Variation in colour markings of German wasps Vespula germanica (F.) and common wasps Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 16: 303-313.

Clapperton, B. K., Moller, H., Sandlant, G. 1989: Distribution of social wasps (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in New Zealand in 1987. New Zealand journal of zoology 16: 315-323.

Clapperton, B. K., Tilley, J. A. V., Beggs, J. R., Moller, H. 1994: Changes in the distribution and proportions of Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) between 1987 and 1990 in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 21: 295-303.

Clapperton, B. K., Tilley, J. A. V., Pierce, R. J. 1996: Distribution and abundance of Asian paper wasps Polistes chinensis antennalis Perez and Australian paper wasps P.humilis (Fab.) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in various habitats in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 23: 19-25.

Donovan, B. D. 1991: Life cycle of Sphecophaga vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae), a parasitoid of some vespid wasps. New Zealand journal of zoology 18: 181-192.

Donovan, B. J. 1984: Occurrence of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 11: 417-427.

Donovan, B. J. 1989: Potential enemies of the introduced wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum (Hymneoptera:Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 16: 365-367.

Donovan, B. J. 1991: Nest initiation by German and common wasp queens (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) and nest fate at Christchurch, New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 18: 95-99.

Donovan, B. J., Howie, A. M. E., Schroeder, N. C., Wallace, A. R.; Read, P. E. C. 1992: Comparative characteristics of nests of Vespula germanica (F.) and Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera:Vespinae). New Zealand journal of zoology 19: 61-71.

Donovan, B. J., Moller, H., Plunkett, G. M., Read, P. E. C., Tilley, J. A. V. 1989: Release and recovery of the introduced wasp parasitoid, Sphecophaga vesparum vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 16: 355-364.

Donovan, B. J., Read, P. E. C. 1987: Attempted biological control of social wasps, Vespula spp., (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) with Sphecophaga vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 14: 329-335.

Dymock, J. J., Forgie, S. A., Ameratunga, R. 1994: A survey of wasp sting injuries in urban Auckland from December to April in 1991/92 and 1992/93. New Zealand medical journal 107: 32-33.

Fordham, R. A. 1962: Spread of the German wasp in New Zealand. Tuatara 9: 129-130.

Fordham, R. A. 1991: Vespulid wasps at the upper forest margin in Tongariro National Park - a threat to the native biota? New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 151-153.

Fordham, R. A., Craven, A. J., Minot, E. O. 1991: Phenology and population structure of annual nests of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fab.) in Manawatu, New Zealand, with particular reference to late summer and autumn. New Zealand journal of zoology 18: 127-137.

Glare, T. R., Harris, R. J., Donovan, B. J. 1996: Aspergillus flavus as a pathogen of wasps, Vespula spp., in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 23: 339-344.

Harcourt, S. J.; Harris, R. J.; Rose, E. A. F.; Glare, T. R.; Nelson, T. L. 1997: The potential of Beauveria bassiana for the control of common and German wasps (Vespula vulgaris L. and V. germanica F.) in New Zealand. Proceedings of 4th international workshop on microbial control of soil dwelling pests.

Harris, A.C. 1979: Occurrence and nesting of the yellow Oriental paper wasp, Polistes olivaceus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 7: 41-44.

Harris, A. C. 1984: An American bald-faced hornet (Dolichovespula maculata; Hymenoptera: Vespidae) captured live in the Dunedin town belt. New Zealand Entomologist 8: 44-46.

Harris, R.J. 1989: An entrance trap to sample foods of social wasps (Hymenoptera:Vespidae). New Zealand journal of zoology 16: 369-371.

Harris, R. J. 1991: Diet of the wasps Vespula vulgaris and V. germanica in honeydew beech forest of the South Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 159-170.

Harris, R.J. 1995: Effect of starvation of larvae of Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) on subsequent survival and adult size. New Zealand journal of zoology 22: 33-38.

Harris, R.J. 1996: Frequency of overwintered Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) colonies in scrubland- pasture habitat and their impact on prey. New Zealand journal of zoology 23: 11-17.

Harris, R. J., Beggs, J. R. 1995: Variation in the quality of Vespula vulgaris (L.) queens (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) and its significance in wasp population dynamics. New Zealand journal of zoology 22: 131-142.

Harris, R. J., Moller, H., Tilley, J. A. V. 1991: Weather-related differences in attractiveness of protein foods to Vespula wasps. New Zealand journal of ecology 15: 167-170.

Harris, R. J., Moller, H., Winterbourn, M. J. 1994: Competition for honeydew between two social wasps in South Island beech forests, New Zealand. Insectes Sociaux 41: 379-394.

Harris, R. J., Oliver, E. H. 1993: Prey diets and population densities of the wasps Vespula vulgaris and V. germanica in scrubland-pasture. New Zealand journal of ecology 17: 5-12.

Harris, R.J.; Read, P.E.C. 1999: Enhanced biological control of wasps. Science for conservation 115, 39pp.

Harris, R. J.; Rose, E. A. F. 1999: Factors influencing reproductive strategies of the vespid parasitoid Sphecocphaga vesparum vesparum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). New Zealand journal of zoology 26: 89-96.

Harris, R. J.; Rose, E. A. F. In press: White and yellow cocoon production in the vespid parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). New Zealand journal of zoology.

Harris, R. J., Thomas, C. D., Moller, H. 1991: The influence of habitat use and foraging on the replacement of one introduced wasp species by another in New Zealand. Ecological Entomology 16: 441-448.

Leathwick, D. M. 1997: Growth and development of queen colonies of Vespula germanica and V.vulgaris. New Zealand journal of zoology 24: 17-23.

Leathwick, D. M., Godfrey, P. L. 1996: Overwintering colonies of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris)in Palmerston North, New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 23: 355-358.

Leathwick, D. M.; Godfrey, P. L.; Fordham, R. A.; Potter, M. A.1999: Comparative growth and seasonality of Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) colonies in the Manawatu region of New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 26: 27-38.

Malham, J. P., Rees, J. S., Alspach, P. A., Beggs, J. R., Moller, H. 1991: Traffic rate as an index of colony size in Vespula wasps. New Zealand journal of zoology 18: 105-109.

Moller, H. 1996: Lessons for invasion theory from social insects. Biological Conservation 78: 125-142.

Moller, H., Clapperton, B. K., Alspach, P. A., Tilley, J. A. V. 1991: Comparative seasonality of Vespula germanica (F.) and Vespula vulgaris (L.) colonies (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in urban Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 18: 111-120.

Moller, H., Clapperton, K., Gaze, P., Sandlant, G., Thomas, B., Tilley, J. 1987: Honeydew - life blood of South Island beech forests. Forest and Bird 18: 14-16.

Moller, H., Clapperton, K., Sandlant, G., Tilley, J. 1987: Wasps - the new invaders. New Zealand environment 56: 3-8.

Moller, H., Plunkett, G. M., Tilley, J. A. V., Toft, R. J., Beggs, J. R. 1991: Establishment of the wasp parasitoid, Sphecophaga vesparum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 199-208.

Moller, H., Tilley, J. A. V. 1989: Beech honeydew: seasonal variation and use by wasps, honeybees and other insects. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 289-302.

Moller, H., Tilley, J. A. V., Plunkett, G. M., Clapperton, B. K. 1991: Nest sites of common and German wasps ((Hymenoptera:Vespidae). New Zealand journal of zoology 18: 121-125.

Moller, H., Tilley, J. A. V., Thomas, B. W., Gaze, P. D. 1991: Effect of introduced social wasps on the standing crop of honeydew in New Zealand beech forests. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 171-179.

Notman, P. R., Beggs, J. R. 1993: Are wasps more likely to sting men than women. New Zealand entomologist 16: 49-51.

Perrott, D.C.F. 1975: Factors affecting the use of mirex-poisoned protein baits for control of European wasp (Paravespula germanica) in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 2: 491-508.

Plunkett, G. M., Moller, H., Hamilton, C., Thomas, C. D. 1989: Overwintering colonies of German (Vespula germanica) and common wasps (Vespula vulgaris) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 16: 343-353.

Rose, E. A. F.; Harris, R. J.; Glare, T. R. 1999: Possible pathogens of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) and their potential as biological control agents. New Zealand journal of zoology 26: 179-190.

Sandlant, G. R., Moller, H. 1989: Abundance of common and German wasps (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in the honeydew beech forests of New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 16: 333-343.

Spurr, E. B. 1991: Reduction of wasp (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) populations by poison-baiting; experimental use of sodium monofluroacetate (1080) in canned sardine. New Zealand journal of zoology 18: 215-222.

Spurr, E. B. 1993: The effectiveness of sulfluramid in sardine bait for control of wasps (Hymenoptera:Vespidae). Proceedings New Zealand plant protection conference 46: 307-312.

Spurr, E. B. 1995: Protein bait preferences of wasps (Vespula vulgaris and V. germanica) at Mt Thomas, Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 22: 281-289.

Spurr, E. B. 1996: Carbohydrate bait preferences of wasps (Vespula vulgaris and V. germanica) (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand journal of zoology 23: 315-324.

Thomas, C. D., Moller, H., Plunkett, G. M., Harris, R. J . 1990: The prevalence of introduced Vespula vulgaris wasps in a New Zealand beech forest community. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 13: 63-72.

Toft, R. J., Beggs, J. R. 1995: Seasonality of crane flies (Diptera:Tipulidae) in South Island beech forest in relation to the abundance of Vespula wasps (Hymenoptera:Vespidae). New Zealand entomologist 18: 37-43.

Toft, R. J., Malham, J. P., Beggs, J. R. 1999: Mortality and emergence pattern of over-wintering cocoons of the wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum vesparum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. Environmental Entomology 28: 9-13.

Toft, R. J., Rees, J. S. 1998: Reducing predation of orb-web spiders (Araneidae) by controlling common wasps (Vespula vulgaris) in a New Zealand beech forest. Ecological Entomology 23: 90-95.

Weston, R. J., Woolhouse, A. D., Spurr, E. B., Harris, R. J., Suckling, D. M. 1997: Spiroacetals and other venom constituents as potential wasp (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) attractants. Journal of chemical ecology 23: 553-568.

Wilson, P. R., Karl, B. J., Toft, R. J., Beggs, J. R., Taylor, R. H. 1998: The role of introduced predators and competitors in the decline of kaka (Nestor meridionalis) populations in New Zealand. Biological Conservation 83: 175-185


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